Literacy Policy in Southeast Asia: A Comparative Study between Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia

  • Evi Fatimatur Rusydiyah Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Zaini Tamin AR Doctoral candidate of Education Study Program, UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Moh. Rifqi Rahman Doctoral candidate of Education Study Program, UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya, Indonesia
Keywords: comparative studies, educational policy, literacy, Southeast Asia


This study starts with two questions: why is the literacy of 15-year-old Indonesian students low, and how does this compare with other countries? This study aimed to examine the literacy policies in Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia and discuss the strategic policies to improve literacy in each country. The qualitative comparative research method was employed to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the literacy policies in these three countries. According to the findings, Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia each have distinct literacy policy trends. The context of each country’s education system and language affects the government’s literacy policies: Singapore emphasises industrialisation; Malaysia refers to its multi-ethnic life; Indonesia reflects the 2013 curriculum. Meanwhile, the National Library Board (NLB; Singapore), the Malaysian National Literacy Agency (Malaysia), the Language and Book Development Agency, as well as the Archive and Library Agency (Indonesia) contribute to the implementation and commitment of these literacy policies. As part of their programme implementation, each institution has a literacy activity.


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How to Cite
Fatimatur Rusydiyah, E., Tamin AR, Z., & Rahman, M. R. (2023). Literacy Policy in Southeast Asia: A Comparative Study between Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, 13(2), 79-96.