Personal and Emotional Factors in the Labour Integration of University Graduates in the Field of Education. Implications for University Teaching

  • Juan L. Castejón
  • Raquel Gilar
  • Pablo Miñano
Keywords: Emotional intelligence, Labour integration, Personality, University education of teachers

Abstract

The main aim of this paper is to analyse the role of intellectual, personal and emotional competencies as well as technical knowledge - academic achievement - in the employment of
university graduates, with the purpose of incorporating these competencies into training programmes developed within the European Framework of Higher Education. This study is based on an initial sample of 118 university graduates in the field of education. We have gathered information about academic achievement and the intellectual, personal and  emotional traits of this sample. From these data, and given the importance of
non-intellectual aspects of intelligence associated with professional success, the specific contribution -incremental validity - of personal and emotional intelligence in explaining the
employment - labour integration - of university graduates in the field of education is studied. From this point onwards, we attempt to identify the key socio-emotional competencies in
the field of education in order to establish the implications of including this type of skills in university training programmes within the European Higher Education Area. 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de la Calidad y Acreditación (ANECA, 2007). Project
Reflex. Executive Report. June 2007. Spanish Ministry of Education.

Amelang, M., & Steinmayr (2006). Is there a validity increment for tests of emotional
intelligence in explaining the variance of performance criteria? Intelligence, 34, 459-468.

Ayers, D., & Stone, B. (1999). Extension organization of the future: Linking emotional
intelligence and core competencies. Journal of Extension, 37(6). Retreived from http://joe.
org/joe/1999december/iw4.html.

Barchard, K. (2003). Does emotional intelligence assist in the prediction of academic
success? Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63(5), 840-858.

Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Quotient
Inventory (EQ-i). In R. Bar-On and J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), The handbook of emotional
intelligence: Theory, development, assessment, and application at home, school, and in the
workplace (pp. 363-387). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Bastian, V.A., Burns, N. R., & Nettelbeck, T. (2005). Emotional intelligence predicts life skills,
but not as well as personality and cognitive abilities. Personality and Individual Differences,
39, 1135-1145.

Bisquerra, R. (2005). La educación emocional en la formación del profesorado [Education
on emotions in teacher training]. Revista Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado,
19(3), 95-114.

Boyatzis, R. E. (2008). Competencies in the 21st century. Journal of Management
Development, 27(1), 5-12.

Boyatzis, R. E. (1999). Self-directed change and learning as a necessary meta-competency
for success and effectiveness in the 21st century. In R. Sims & J. G. Veres (Eds.), Keys to
employee success in the coming decades (pp. 15-32). Westport: Greenwood.

Boyatzis, R. E., Cowen, S. S., & Kolb, D. A. (Eds.), (1995). Innovation in professional
education: Steps on a journey from teaching to learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Boyatzis, R., Goleman, D., & Rhee, K. (2000). Clustering competence in emotional
intelligence. Insights from the emotional competence inventory (ECI). In R. Bar-On &
J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 343-367). San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass.

Boyatzis, R. E., Wheeler, J., & Wright, R. (2001). Competency development in graduate
education: A longitudinal perspective. In Proceedings of the First World Conference on Self-
Directed Learning. Montreal: GIRAT.

Brackett, M., & Mayer, J. D. (2003). Convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of
competing measures of emotional intelligence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,
29(9), 1147-1158.

Bueno, C., Teruel, M. P., & Valero, A. (2005). La inteligencia emocional en alumnos de
Magisterio: La percepción y comprensión de los sentimientos y las emociones [Emotional
intelligence in students of teaching. The perception and comprehension of feelings and
emotions]. Revista Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado, 19(3), 169-194.

Campos, M. C. (2008). Los egresados y su situación laboral ¿estudias o trabajas
[Graduates and their employment status: Do you work or study?]. Revista Fuentes, 8, 1-11.

Cattell, R. B. & Cattell, A. K. (1963). Test of g: Culture fair, Scale (Champaign, III: Institute
for Personality and Ability Testing (Spanish adaptation by TEA Editions, 2002).

Chan, D. W. (2006). Emotional Intelligence components and burnout among Chinese
secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22(8), 1042-
1054.

Chan, D. W. (2008). Emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and coping among Chinese
prospective and in-service teachers in Hong Kong. Educational Psychology, 28(4), 397-408.

Cherniss, C. (2000). Social and Emotional Competence in the workplace. In R. Bar-On
& J. D. Parker (Eds.), The handbook of emotional intelligence (pp.453-458). San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass.

Chico, E. (1999). Evaluación psicométrica de una escala de inteligencia emocional
[Psychometric evaluation of an emotional intelligence scale]. Boletín de Psicología, 62,
65-78.

Cohen, J. (Ed.) (2001). Caring classrooms/intelligent schools: the social emotional education
of young children. New Tork: Teachers College Press.

Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO PI-R, Professional Manual. Revised NEO
Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Odessa, FL:
Psychological Assessment Resources.

Coté, S., & Miners, CTH. (2006). Emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence and job
performance. Administration Science Quarterly, 51, 1-28.

Davies, M., Stankov, L., & Roberts, R. D. (1998). Emotional intelligence. In: search of an
elusive construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 989-1015.

Di Fabio, A. & Palazzeschi, L. (2008). Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy in a sample
of Italian high school teachers. Social Behavior and Personality, 36(3), 315-325.

Dulewicz, V., Higgs, M., & Slaski, M. (2003). Measuring emotional intelligence: content,
construct and criterion-related validity. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(5), 405-420.

Echeverría, B. (2002). Gestión de la competencia de acción profesional [Managing
competencies in professional practice]. Revista de Investigación Educativa, 20(1), 7-42.

Education Council (2006). Recommendation of the European Parliament and the Council
of 18 December 2006 on key competencies for lifelong learning. Brussels: Official Journal of
the European Union, 30. 12. 2006.

Extremera, N., & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2004). La importancia de desarrollar la
inteligencia emocional en el profesorado [The importance of developing emotional
intelligence in teachers]. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación, 33(8). Retreived form
http://www.campus-oei.org/revista/deloslectores/759Extremera.PDF.

Fallows, S., & Steven, C. (Eds.) (2000). Integrating key skills in higher education:
employability, transferable skills and learning for life. London: Kogan Page.

Fernández-Berrocal, P., Extremera, N., & Ramos, N. (2004). Validity and reliability of the
Spanish modified version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24). Psychological Report,
94, 751-755.

García-Aracil, A., & Van der Velden, R. (2008). Competencies for young European higher
education graduates: labour market mismatches and their payoffs. Higher Education,
55(2), 219-239.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books, Inc.

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. Santa Ana: Books on Tape, Inc.

Goleman, D. (2001). Emotional intelligence perspectives on a theory of performance. In
C. Cherniss, & D. Goleman (Eds.), The emotionally intelligent workplace (pp. 27-44). San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

González, J., & Wagenaar, R. (2003). Tuning Educational Structures in Europe. Final
Report. Phase One. Bilbao: Universidad de Deusto.

Gottfredson, L. S. (2003). Jobs and Life. In H. Nyborg (Ed.), The Scientific Study of General
Intelligence (pp. 293-342). Oxford: Elsevier Science/Pergamon.

Hedlund, J., & Sternberg, RJ. (2000). Too many intelligences? Integrating social,
emotional and practical intelligence. In R. Bar-On, & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), The handbook
of emotional intelligence (pp. 136-168). San Francisco: Jorsey-Bass.

Hettich, P. (2000). Transition processes from college to career. Washington: American
Psychological Association.

Jaeger, A. (2003). Job competencies and the curriculum: An inquiry into emotional
intelligence in graduate professional education. Research in Higher Education, 44(6),
615-639.

Jennings, P. A. & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The Prosocial Classroom: Teacher Social and
Emotional Competence in Relation to Student and Classroom Outcomes. Review of
Educational Research, 79(1), 491-525.

Kassem, C. L (2002). Developing the teaching professional: what teacher educators need
to know about emotions. Teacher Development, 6(3), 363-372.

Koman, E. S. & Wolff, S. B. (2008). Emotional intelligence competencies in the team and
team leader: A multi-level examination of the impact of emotional intelligence on team
performance. Journal of Management Development, 27(1), 55-75.

Landa, J. M. A., Lopez-Zafra, E., Martinez, R., & Pulido, M. (2006). Perceived emotional
intelligence and life satisfaction among university teachers. Psicothema, 18, 152-157.

Lopes, P. N., Coté, S., Grewal, D., Kadis, J., Gall, M. & Slovey, P. (2006). Emotional
intelligence and positive work outcomes. Psicothema, 18(Suppl.), 132-138.

Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. (2003). Emotional intelligence: Science and Myth.
Cambridge: MIT Press.

Mayer, J., Caruso, DR., & Salovey, P. (2000). Emotional intelligence meets traditional
standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27(4), 267-298.

Mayer, J., Caruso, DR., Salovey, P., & Sitarenios, G. (2003). Measuring emotional
intelligence with the MSCEIT V2.0. Emotion, 3(1), 97-105.

Mayer, J. D., Roberts, R. D., & Barsade, S. G. (2008). Human Abilities: Emotional
Intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507-536.

Mayer, J., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. (2000). Emotional intelligence as Zeitgeist, as
personality, and as mental ability. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of emotional
intelligence (pp. 92-117). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Mora, J. (1997), Empleo y cualificación tras la educación postobligatoria [Employment
and qualifications after compulsory education]. Tribuna de Economía, 764.

Nunan, T., George, R., & McCausland, H. (2000). Implementing graduate skills at an
Australian university. In S. Fallows & C. Steven (Eds.), Integrating key skills in higher
education: employability, transferable skills and learning for life (pp. 183-200). London:
Kogan Page.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2005). The
definition and selection of key competencies. Executive Summary.Retreived form http://
www.oecd.org/dataoecd/47/61/35070367.pdf.

Palací, F. J., & Moriano, J. A. (Coords.) (2002). El Nuevo Mercado laboral: estrategias
de inserción y desarrollo profesional [The new labour market: strategies for insertion and
professional development]. Madrid: UNED.

Palací, F. J. & Topa, G. (Coords.) (2002). La persona en la empresa: iniciativas de
integración y desarrollo [The individual in the company: initiatives for integration and
development]. Madrid: UNED.

Palomera, R., Fernández-Berrocal, P., & Brackett, M. A. (2008). La inteligencia emocional
como una competencia básica en la formación inicial de los docentes: algunas evidencias
[Emotional intelligence as a basic competency in initial training for teachers: some
evidence]. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Psicoeducativa, 15(6-2), 437-454.

Pérez, N., & Castejón, J. L. (2007). La inteligencia emocional como predictor del
rendimiento académico en estudiantes universitarios [Emotional intelligence as a
predictor of academic performance in university students]. Ansiedad y Estrés, 13(1), 119-
129.

Pesquero, E., Sánchez, M. E., González, M., & Martín, R. (2008). Las competencias
profesionales de los maestros de Primaria [Professional competencies of primary school
teachers]. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 241, 447-466.

Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2003). Trait emotional intelligence: Behavioral validation
in two studies of emotion recognition and reactivity to mood induction. European Journal
of Personality, 17, 39-57.

Planas et al. (2000). Marché de la Compétence et dynamiques d’ajustement. Les Cahiers
du LIRHE, 6.

Prahalad, C. K., & Hamel, G. (1990). The core competence of the Corporation. Harvard
Business Review, May, 79-92.

Pug, E. V. (2008). Recognising emotional intelligence in professional standards for
teaching. Practitioner Research in Higher Education, 2(1), 3-12.

Rozell, E., Pettijohn, Ch. E., & Parker, R. S. (2002). An empirical evaluation of emotional
intelligence: The impact on management development. Journal of Management
Development, 21(4), 272-289.

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and
Personality, 9, 185-211.

Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in
personal psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research
findings. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 262-274.

Sheffield Hallam University. Key Skills On-line [www document]. Retreived from http://
www.shu.ac.uk/keytokey/shucontens.htm.

Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., et al.
(1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality
and Individual Differences, 25, 167-177.

Sternberg, R. J. (2003). Reply to the book review on Practical Intelligence in Everyday Life.
Intelligence, 31(4), 395-408.

Sternberg, R. J., Castejón, J. L., Prieto, M. D., Hautamäki, J., & Grigorenko, E. (2001).
Confirmatory factor analysis of the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test in Three International
Samples: An empirical test of the Triarchic Theory. European Journal of Psychological
Assessment, 17, 1-16.

Sternberg, R. J., Prieto, M. D., & Castejón, J. L. (2000). Análisis factorial confirmatorio
del Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test (nivel H) en una muestra española: resultados
preliminares [[Confirmatory factor analysis of the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test (level
H) in a Spanish sample: preliminary results. Psicothema, 12(4), 642-647.

Sutton, R. E., & Wheatley, K. F. (2003). Teacher’s Emotions and Teaching: A review of the
literature and directions for future research. Educational Psychology Review, 15(4), 327-358.

Tapia, M. (2001). Measuring emotional intelligence. Psychological Reports, 88, 353-364.

Teruel, M. P. (2000). La inteligencia emocional en el currículo de la formación inicial
de los maestros [Emotional intelligence in the curriculum for initial teacher training].
Revista Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado, 38, 141-152.

Vanderberghe, J., & Huberman, A. M. (Eds.), (1999). Understanding and preventing
teacher burnout: A sourcebook of international research and practice. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press.

Van der Zee, K., Thijs, M., & Schakel, L. (2002). The relationship of emotional intelligence
with academic intelligence and the Big Five. European Journal of Personality, 16(2), 103-
125.

Weare, K., & Gray, G. (2003). What works in developing children’s emotional and social
competence and wellbeing? Department for Education and Skills Research Report, 456.
London: DfES.

Yoon, J. S. (2002). Teacher characteristics as predictors of teacher-student relationships:
stress, negative affect, and self-efficacy. Social Behavior and Personality: An International
Journal, 30(5), 485-493.

Zeidner, M., Matthews, G., & Roberts, R. D. (2004). Emotional intelligence in the
workplace: A critical review. Applied Psychology. An International Review, 53(3), 371-399.
Published
2018-01-22