The Role of Parental Self-Efficacy in Explaining Children’s Academic Outcomes
Students’ educational outcomes are influenced by several factors that are not directly related to their personal characteristics, among which parental beliefs and behaviours are of special relevance. The present study was conducted on a sample of 301 primary school students and their parents, who completed a set of prepared questionnaires used for investigating the contribution of parental self-efficacy and the perception of parental involvement to students’ academic achievement, perceived academic control and achievement goals. The obtained results indicated parental self-efficacy as a predictor of perceived academic control and avoidance goals, whereas perception of parental involvement predicted perceived academic control, mastery approach and work avoidance goals. These findings confirm and extend previous knowledge regarding the relevance of parents’ engagement to children’s educational outcomes.
Akos, P., & Galassi, J. P. (2004). Middle and high school transitions as viewed by students, parents, and teachers. Professional School Counseling, 7(4), 212–221.
Alexander, K. L., Entwisle, D. R., & Bedinger, S. D. (1994). When expectations work: Race and socioeconomic differences in school performance. Social Psychology Quarterly, 57(4), 283–299. https://doi.org/10.2307/2787156
Anderman, E. M., & Wolters, C. A. (2006). Goals, values, and affect: Influences on student motivation. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 369–389). Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers.
Anderman, L. H., & Anderman, E. M. (1999). Social predictors of changes in students’ achievement goal orientations. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24(1), 21–37. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1998.0978
Anderson, K. J., & Minke, K. M. (2007). Parent involvement in education: Toward an understanding of parents’ decision making. The Journal of Educational Research, 100(5), 311–323. https://doi.org/10.3200/JOER.100.5.311-323
Baharudin, R., & Zulkefly, N. (2009). Relationships with father and mother, self-esteem and academic achievement among college students. American Journal of Scientific Research, 6, 86–94.
Bakker, J., Denessen, E., & Brus-Laeven, M. (2007). Socio-economic background, parental involvement and teacher perceptions of these in relation to pupil achievement. Educational Studies, 33(2), 177–192.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. W. H. Freeman.
Bandura, A. (2006). Toward a psychology of human agency. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(2), 164–180. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00011.x
Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Multifaceted impact of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning. Child Development, 67(3), 1206–1222. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131888
Barger, M. M., Kim, E. M., Kuncel, N. R., & Pomerantz, E. M. (2019). The relation between parents’ involvement in children’s schooling and children’s adjustment: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 145(9), 855–890. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000201
Blyth, D. A., Simmons, R. G., & Carlton-Ford, S. (1983). The adjustment of early adolescents to school transitions. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 3(1–2), 105–120. https://doi.org/10.1177/027243168331008
Bodill, K., & Roberts, L. D. (2013). Implicit theories of intelligence and academic locus of control as predictors of studying behaviour. Learning and Individual Differences, 27, 163–166.
Boonk, L., Gijselaers, H. J., Ritzen, H., & Brand-Gruwel, S. (2018). A review of the relationship between parental involvement indicators and academic achievement. Educational Research Review, 24, 10-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2018.02.001
Bugental, D. B., Blue, J., & Cruzcosa, M. (1989). Perceived control over caregiving outcomes: Implications for child abuse. Developmental Psychology, 25(4), 532–539. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.522
Church, M. A., Elliot, A. J., & Gable, S. L. (2001). Perceptions of classroom environment, achievement goals, and achievement outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 43–54. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06184.108.40.206
Cohen, I., & Cohen, P. (1975). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, Lawrence Erlbum Associates.
Coleman, P. K., & Karraker, K. H. (2000). Parenting self-efficacy among mothers of school-age children: Conceptualization, measurement, and correlates. Family Relations, 49(1), 13–24. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2000.00013.x
Cone, J. D., Delawyer, D. D., & Wolfe, V. V. (1985). Assessing parent participation: The parent/family involvement index. Exceptional Children, 51(5), 417–424. https://doi.org/10.1177/001440298505100508
Dauber, S. L., Alexander, K. L., & Entwisle, D. R. (1996). Tracking and transitions through the middle grades: Channeling educational trajectories. Sociology of Education, 69, 290–307. https://doi.org/10.2307/2112716
Davis-Kean, P. E. (2005). The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: The indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(2), 294–304. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3220.127.116.114
Dearing, E., McCartney, K., Weiss, H. B., Kreider, H., & Simpkins, S. (2004). The promotive effects of family educational involvement for low-income children’s literacy. Journal of School Psychology, 42(6), 445–460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2004.07.002
Desforges, C., & Abouchaar, A. (2003). The impact of parental involvement, parental support and family education on pupil achievement and adjustment: A review of literature. DfES Publications London.
Desimone, L. (1999). Linking parent involvement with student achievement: Do race and income matter? The Journal of Educational Research, 93(1), 11–30. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220679909597625
Deslandes, R., & Bertrand, R. (2005). Motivation of parent involvement in secondary-level schooling. The Journal of Educational Research, 98(3), 164–175. https://doi.org/10.3200/JOER.98.3.164-175
Dornbusch, S. M., Ritter, P. L., Leiderman, P. H., Roberts, D. F., & Fraleigh, M. J. (1987). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. Child Development, 58, 1244–1257. https://doi.org/10.2307/1130618
Eccles, J. S. (1993). School and family effects on the ontogeny of children’s interests, self-perceptions, and activity choices. In J. Jacobs (Ed.), Developmental perspectives on motivation (Vol. 40, pp. 145–208). University of Nebraska Press.
Eccles, J. S. (2005). Subjective task value and the Eccles et al. model of achievement-related choices. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 105–121). Guilford Publication.
Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Flanagan, C. A., Miller, C., Reuman, D. A., & Yee, D. (1989). Self-concepts, domain values, and self-esteem: Relations and changes at early adolescence. Journal of Personality, 57(2), 283–310. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1989.tb00484.x
Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Harold, R. D., & Blumenfeld, P. (1993). Age and gender differences in children’s self-and task perceptions during elementary school. Child Development, 64(3), 830–847. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1993.tb02946.x
Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(3), 501–519. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1681
Elliot, A. J., & Sheldon, K. M. (1997). Avoidance achievement motivation: A personal goals analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(1), 171–185. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.124
Elliot, A. J., & Thrash, T. M. (2001). Achievement goals and the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 13(2), 139–156. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009057102306
Epstein, J. L. (1990). School and family connections: Theory, research, and implications for integrating sociologies of education and family. Marriage & Family Review, 15(1–2), 99–126. https://doi.org/10.1300/J002v15n01_06
Fan, X., & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 13(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009048817385
Gonzalez-DeHass, A. R., Willems, P. P., & Holbein, M. F. D. (2005). Examining the relationship between parental involvement and student motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 17(2), 99–123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-005-3949-7
Greene, B. A., Miller, R. B., Crowson, H. M., Duke, B. L., & Akey, K. L. (2004). Predicting high school students’ cognitive engagement and achievement: Contributions of classroom perceptions and motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29(4), 462–482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2004.01.006
Grolnick, W. S., Benjet, C., Kurowski, C. O., & Apostoleris, N. H. (1997). Predictors of parent involvement in children’s schooling. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(3), 538–548. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.1998
Grolnick, W. S., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1991). Inner resources for school achievement: Motivational mediators of children’s perceptions of their parents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(4), 508–517. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.528
Grolnick, W. S., & Slowiaczek, M. L. (1994). Parents’ involvement in children’s schooling: A multidimensional conceptualization and motivational model. Child Development, 65(1), 237–252. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131378
Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Tauer, J. M., Carter, S. M., & Elliot, A. J. (2000). Short-term and long-term consequences of achievement goals: Predicting interest and performance over time. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 316–330.https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06184.108.40.2066
Haveman, R., & Wolfe, B. (1995). The determinants of children’s attainments: A review of methods and findings. Journal of Economic Literature, 33, 1829–1878.
Hirsch, B. J., & Rapkin, B. D. (1987). The transition to junior high school: A longitudinal study of self-esteem, psychological symptomatology, school life, and social support. Child Development, 58(5), 1235–1243.https://doi.org/10.2307/1130617
Hoff, E. (2003). The specificity of environmental influence: Socioeconomic status affects early vocabulary development via maternal speech. Child Development, 74(5), 1368–1378.https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00612
Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Bassler, O. C., & Brissie, J. S. (1992). Explorations in parent-school relations. The Journal of Educational Research, 85(5), 287–294. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.1992.9941128
Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M. (1995). Parental involvement in children’s education: Why does it make a difference. The Teachers College Record, 97(2), 310–331.
Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M. (1997). Why do parents become involved in their children’s education? Review of Educational Research, 67(1), 3–42. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543067001003
Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Walker, J. M., Sandler, H. M., Whetsel, D., Green, C. L., Wilkins, A. S., & Closson, K. (2005). Why do parents become involved? Research findings and implications. The Elementary School Journal, 106(2), 105–130. https://doi.org/10.1086/499194
Jokić, B., & Ristić Dedić, Z. (2010). Razlike u školskom uspjehu učenika trećih i sedmih razreda osnovnih škola u Republici Hrvatskoj s obzirom na spol učenika i obrazovanje roditelja: Populacijska perspektiva [Differences in the academic accomplishments of students of the third and seventh grades of primary school in Croatia according to students' gender and parents' education: A population perspective]. Revija Za Socijalnu Politiku, 17(3), 345–362. https://doi.org/10.3935/rsp.v17i3.954
Kaliski, P. K., Finney, S. J., & Horst, S. J. (2006). Does socioeconomic status influence achievement goal adoption? An investigation of group difference using structured means modeling. Presented at the Meeting of the American Educational Research Association.
Keresteš, G., Brković, I., & Kuterovac Jagodić, G. (2011). Doživljaj kompetentnosti u roditeljskoj ulozi i sukobi između roditelja i adolescenata [Parental competence and adolescent-parent conflict]. Suvremena Psihologija, 14(1), 17–34.
Klebanov, P. K., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Duncan, G. J. (1994). Does neighborhood and family poverty affect mothers’ parenting, mental health, and social support? Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 441–455. https://doi.org/10.2307/353111
Lee, V. E., & Croninger, R. G. (1994). The relative importance of home and school in the development of literacy skills for middle-grade students. American Journal of Education, 102, 286–329. https://doi.org/10.1086/444071
Magnuson, K. (2007). Maternal education and children’s academic achievement during middle childhood. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1497–1512. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.117
Marchant, G. J., Paulson, S. E., & Rothlisberg, B. A. (2001). Relations of middle school students’ perceptions of family and school contexts with academic achievement. Psychology in the Schools, 38(6), 505–519. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.1039
McDonald, J. D. (2008). Measuring personality constructs: The advantages and disadvantages of self-reports, informant reports and behavioural assessments. Enquire, 1(1), 1–18.
Midgley, C., & Urdan, T. (1995). Predictors of middle school students’ use of self-handicapping strategies. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 15(4), 389–411. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431695015004001
Moè, A., Katz, I., & Alesi, M. (2018). Scaffolding for motivation by parents, and child homework motivations and emotions: Effects of a training programme. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(2), 323–344. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12216
Moroni, S., Dumont, H., Trautwein, U., Niggli, A., & Baeriswyl, F. (2015). The need to distinguish between quantity and quality in research on parental involvement: The example of parental help with homework. The Journal of Educational Research, 108(5), 417–431. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2014.901283
Murphey, D. A. (1992). Constructing the child: Relations between parents’ beliefs and child outcomes. Developmental Review, 12(2), 199–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297(92)90009-Q
Noack, P. (2004). The family context of preadolescents’ orientations toward education: Effects of maternal orientations and behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(4), 714–722. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1684
Patall, E. A., Cooper, H., & Robinson, J. C. (2008). Parent involvement in homework: A research synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 78(4), 1039–1101. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654308325185
Patrick, H., Ryan, A. M., & Pintrich, P. R. (1999). The differential impact of extrinsic and mastery goal orientations on males’ and females’ self-regulated learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 11(2), 153–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1041-6080(00)80003-5
Paulhus, D. L., & Vazire, S. (2007). The self-report method. In R. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley, & R. F. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in personality psychology (pp. 224–239). Guilford Press.
Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2006). Achievement goals and discrete achievement emotions: A theoretical model and prospective test. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 583–597. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.1243
Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2009). Achievement goals and achievement emotions: Testing a model of their joint relations with academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(1), 115–135. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013383
Perry, R. P. (1991). Perceived control in college students: Implications for instruction in higher education. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (Vol. 7, pp. 1–56). Agathon.
Perry, R. P., Hall, N. C., & Ruthig, J. C. (2005). Perceived (academic) control and scholastic attainment in higher education. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (Vol. 20, pp. 363–436). Springer.
Perry, R. P., Hladkyj, S., Pekrun, R. H., Clifton, R. A., & Chipperfield, J. G. (2005). Perceived academic control and failure in college students: A three-year study of scholastic attainment. Research in Higher Education, 46(5), 535–569. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-005-3364-4
Perry, R. P., Hladkyj, S., Pekrun, R. H., & Pelletier, S. T. (2001). Academic control and action control in the achievement of college students: A longitudinal field study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(4), 776–789. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.1996
Petrocelli, J. V. (2003). Hierarchical multiple regression in counseling research: Common problems and possible remedies. Measurement and evaluation in counseling and development, 36(1), 9–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481756.2003.12069076
Pomerantz, E. M., Altermatt, E. R., & Saxon, J. L. (2002). Making the grade but feeling distressed: Gender differences in academic performance and internal distress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(2), 396–404. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.526
Pomerantz, E. M., Moorman, E. A., & Litwack, S. D. (2007). The how, whom, and why of parents’ involvement in children’s academic lives: More is not always better. Review of Educational Research, 77(3), 373–410. https://doi.org/10.3102/003465430305567
Reed, R. P., Jones, K. P., Walker, J. M., & Hoover-Dempsey, K. V. (2000). Parents’ motivations for involvement in children’s education: Testing a theoretical model. Presented at the Annual conference of the American Educational Research Association.
Rovan, D. (2011). Odrednice odabira ciljeva pri učenju matematike u visokom obrazovanju (Doctoral Thesis). Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb.
Schunk, D. H. (1989). Social cognitive theory and self-regulated learning. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement (pp. 83–110). Springer.
Seefeldt, C., Denton, K., Galper, A., & Younoszai, T. (1998). Former Head Start parents’ characteristics, perceptions of school climate, and involvement in their children’s education. The Elementary School Journal, 98, 339–349. https://doi.org/10.1086/461900
Shumow, L., & Lomax, R. (2002). Parental efficacy: Predictor of parenting behavior and adolescent outcomes. Parenting: Science and Practice, 2(2), 127–150. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327922PAR0202_03
Sigel, I. E., McGillicuddy-DeLisi, A. V., & Goodnow, J. J. (2014). Parental belief systems: The psychological consequences for children. Psychology Press.
Silinskas, G., & Kikas, E. (2019). Parental involvement in math homework: Links to children’s performance and motivation. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 63(1), 17–37. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2017.1324901
Silinskas, G., Kiuru, N., Aunola, K., Lerkkanen, M. K., & Nurmi, J. E. (2015). The developmental dynamics of children’s academic performance and mothers’ homework-related affect and practices. Developmental Psychology, 51(4), 419–433. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038908
Walker, J. M., Wilkins, A. S., Dallaire, J. R., Sandler, H. M., & Hoover-Dempsey, K. V. (2005). Parental involvement: Model revision through scale development. The Elementary School Journal, 106(2), 85–104. https://doi.org/10.1086/499193
Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Parents’ aspirations for children’s educational attainments: Relations to parental beliefs and social address variables. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 44(1), 20–37.
Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Expectancy–value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 68–81. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1015
Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., Mac Iver, D., Reuman, D. A., & Midgley, C. (1991). Transitions during early adolescence: Changes in children’s domain-specific self-perceptions and general self-esteem across the transition to junior high school. Developmental Psychology, 27(4), 552–565. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16184.108.40.2062
Wilder, S. (2014). Effects of parental involvement on academic achievement: A meta-synthesis. Educational Review, 66(3), 377–397. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2013.780009
In order to ensure both the widest dissemination and protection of material published in CEPS Journal, we ask Authors to transfer to the Publisher (Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana) the rights of copyright in the Articles they contribute. This enables the Publisher to ensure protection against infringement.