Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal <p>The Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal devoted to publishing research papers in different fields of education, including scientific.</p> University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Education, Slovenia en-US Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 1855-9719 <p>In order to ensure both the widest dissemination and protection of material published in CEPS Journal, we ask Authors to transfer to the Publisher (Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana) the rights of copyright in the Articles they contribute. This enables the Publisher to ensure protection against infringement.</p> The Role of Textbooks in Teaching and Learning Processes Gregor Torkar Miha Kovač Mojca Kovač Šebart Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 12 2 7 10 10.26529/cepsj.1479 The Changing Role of Textbooks in Primary Education in the Digital Era: What Can We Learn from Reading Research? <p>Textbooks have been the primary teaching tool since the 19<sup>th</sup> century. By their nature, they contained a comprehensive compilation of the content of a particular subject with the intention of explaining it; this knowledge, in turn, was usually filtered to conform to a particular society’s expectations of elementary knowledge about the natural and social environments. There has been a great deal of research on how the content of textbooks has changed in line with changing values in different societies and over different periods. However, little research has been done on how textbook reading substrates and design have changed and how these changes have affected learning and comprehension: studies that systematically examined the effects of different reading substrates and different layouts on reading and learning comprehension did not appear until the late 20<sup>th</sup> century and early 21<sup>st</sup> century. We examine such studies and PISA 2021 results to draw five conclusions for future textbook research. These conclusions indicate that screens are worse than printed texts for some types of reading, while interactivity and dynamic design are not values per se but require coherent design to improve reading performance and higher-level thinking skills.</p> Miha Kovač Alenka Kepic Mohar Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 12 2 11 27 10.26529/cepsj.1290 Textbooks and Students’ Knowledge <p>In Slovenia, textbooks are an integral part of the curriculum. Nationally certified textbooks guarantee both teachers and students that they provide all of the necessary knowledge in each subject. There are many available certified textbooks for each subject and teachers must decide which will be the source of instruction for their students. Our research question is whether groups of students who use different textbooks as their mandatory learning resource differ in their knowledge and their attitudes towards learning. We linked existing data from several sources and explored the scope of the use of different textbooks for mathematics and science subjects in primary schools. Data on student knowledge measured independently by National Assessments (and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study were used, and differences in knowledge and attitudes to learning between students who are taught using different textbooks were explored. Although the study has considerable limitations due to missing data, the results of the analyses indicate some profound differences in knowledge and attitudes between groups of students using different textbooks. These findings could serve as a guide for teachers when choosing the optimal available textbook for their students and, even more so, as support for improving the criteria in the national system of validation of textbooks in the future. The link between the use of textbooks and student learning outcomes also highlights the need to systematically collect information on the use of textbooks among students and follow the effects on achievement in order to improve the quality of future textbooks.</p> Barbara Japelj Pavešić Gašper Cankar Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 12 2 29 65 10.26529/cepsj.1283 Textbooks and Teaching Materials in Rural Schools: A Systematic Review <p>This paper presents the results of a research project whose main purpose is to analyse the concept of multigrade teaching resources and the teaching materials used by teachers in rural schools, in particular the role of textbooks. The use and dimensions of teaching materials are studied in order to promote inclusion and learning in multigrade classrooms with children of different ages mixed together. The present systematic review aims to identify and analyse all of the research papers published internationally on teaching resources in rural schools for the Web of Science and Scopus databases (from 1992 to 2021) and Google Scholar (between 2010 and February 2021). Due to the dearth of publications focused on the topic of study, the reviewed articles have broad inclusion and exclusion criteria. This gives relevance and an innovative character to the research, allowing us to objectify the state of the question on multigrade didactic materials and their relation to teaching-learning processes. From a total of 332 research papers in the field of rural multigrade teaching identified for further analysis, only papers that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and passed all phases of the PRISMA flow diagram were used (<em>N </em>= 33). Some research publications contributed to identifying opportunities and needs, and to suggesting criteria to be taken into account for the selection and creation of materials to promote inclusion and active learning methodologies. The first results show the need to create one’s own materials that analyse the reality of these schools, as well as the need to personalise and adapt printed or digital textbooks and other teaching materials in order to involve the students actively in the learning process and to respond to the needs of rural students in multigrade classrooms.</p> Núria Carrete-Marín Laura Domingo-Peñafiel Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 12 2 67 94 10.26529/cepsj.1288 Differences in the Requirements of Digital and Printed Mathematics Textbooks: Focus on Geometry Chapters <p style="text-align: justify; margin: 15.0pt 0cm 15.0pt 0cm;"><span lang="EN-GB">Textbooks have always played an important role in mathematics education. Textbook tasks are widely used by students, so it is important to examine their requirements&nbsp;in order to&nbsp;identify the opportunities students have to learn mathematics. Publishers now produce both printed and digital versions of textbooks. While the requirements of the tasks in printed textbooks have been well examined all over the world, the tasks in digital textbooks are yet to be&nbsp;analysed and systematically developed. The research presented in this paper encompasses the analysis and comparison of the tasks in the printed and digital versions of the same mathematics textbook set. The examined set covers Grades 1 to 4 of primary education in Croatia. The aim was to find what task requirements are predominant in the printed and the digital textbooks, and to determine whether these textbook versions provide a wide variety of task features. In addition, the features and capacities typical of digital tasks, such as interactivity and dynamics, are examined. These task features are particularly important in geometry education for comprehending visual and dynamic geometrical objects and relations. The results show that both the printed and the digital textbook tasks have traditional requirements, with an emphasis on closed answer forms. Moreover, the new opportunities afforded by digital tasks are not realised. These findings reveal the potential of digital tasks as a new area to be explored and developed.</span></p> Dubravka Glasnović Gracin Ana Krišto Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 12 2 95 117 10.26529/cepsj.1285 The Teaching of Initial Multiplication Concepts and Skills in Croatian Textbooks <p>The goal of this paper is to describe the teaching of initial multiplication concepts and skills, up to the multiplication table, in the Croatian educational system. As Stiegler and Hiebert (1999) concluded, teaching is a complex system rooted in a cultural script of a given society. To describe it without ignoring certain features of it that appear to be self-evident to an insider, it is necessary to step out of this cultural frame. For that reason, we study the teaching of initial multiplication in Croatia by comparing Croatian mathematical textbooks with textbooks from Singapore, Japan, and England. For the textbook analysis, we adapt the framework of Charalambous, Delaney, Hsu, and Mesa that examines a textbook as an environment for the construction of knowledge of a single mathematical concept. The analysis provides evidence that practice and automation are at the centre of the initial learning of multiplication in Croatia. The meaning of multiplication usually is not clear, and pupils are not provided additional tools for developing understanding, nor they are encouraged to use different calculation strategies in a flexible manner. The study also indicates that Croatian textbooks present mathematics as a practice that is closed and pre-given, restricted to the one and the only right way through it.</p> Goran Trupčević Anđa Valent Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 12 2 119 141 10.26529/cepsj.1303 Nature of Science in Greek Secondary School Biology Textbooks <p>The nature of science describes what science is, how it works, and its interactions with society under the perspectives of philosophy, history, sociology, and psychology of science. Understanding it is an essential aspect of scientific literacy. Given the critical role that school textbooks hold, considering what is taught and how it is taught in schools, we find the presence of the nature of science in school science textbooks to be significant. In this research paper, all Greek biology textbooks of lower secondary education are analysed to evaluate whether principal elements of the nature of science can be found in them. The whole array of educational resources available (textbooks, workbooks, lab guides, teachers’ books) was analysed as well as the corresponding official biology curricula. Content analysis was the method of choice, and the ‘meaning unit’ was the unit of analysis. We found that most of the nature of science references in the material that students were taught in 2021/22 was implicit and not especially designed by the curriculum. Some nature of science aspects were more commonly found (e.g., evidence is vital in science) than others (e.g., science has limits). The most opportunities for the nature of science to be introduced were found in history of science vignettes, laboratory activities, and some optional inquiry activities. However, without a structured design from the curriculum, it is the teachers’ responsibility to design and facilitate nature of science instruction (or not). We conclude that lacking explicit references, the nature of science falls into the hidden curriculum and becomes falsely depicted, enforcing a positivist image of science.</p> Nausica Kapsala Apostolia Galani Evangelia Mavrikaki Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 12 2 143 168 10.26529/cepsj.1309 Theorising Textbook Adaptation in English Language Teaching <p>Even though textbooks are a central component of the daily instructional practice of English language teachers, relatively little research has been conducted on how teachers actually use (i.e., adapt) textbooks in the classroom. This gap is aggravated by the fact that the terminology proposed in the literature to analyse teachers’ textbook use is characterised by inconsistencies because different terms denote the same adaptation techniques, identical terms refer to different techniques and suggested frameworks differ in the fact that comparable techniques are allocated to different categories. This inconsistency mirrors the difficulty of operationally defining adaptation techniques, as the terms used may be unambiguous but vague and therefore of reduced explanatory power or more specific but potentially unreliable because an adaptation may be matched to different terms given the complexity of a particular textbook adaptation. Discussing these aspects, this paper proposes a research-informed framework to contribute to a systematic description of textbook adaptation in foreign and second language teaching. Examining adaptation as a process, it is argued that teachers, driven by an identified or felt mismatch between the textbook and other factors (e.g., school facilities, the learners, teacher cognition, course requirements, or outdatedness of the materials), engage in adaptation based on principles (i.e., ideas about best practices, by making changes to the content, the language and/or the sequence of activities offered by the textbook authors). Even though related to English language teaching, this paper does not exclusively inform this context as it offers implications for research on textbook use in other disciplines.</p> Stefan Rathert Neşe Cabaroğlu Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 12 2 169 188 10.26529/cepsj.1287 Interview with Richard E. Mayer about Multimedia Materials and Textbooks Gregor Torkar Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 12 2 189 195 10.26529/cepsj.1238 Interdisciplinary Interaction between Music Education and History: Shaping the Musical Preferences in Classical Music of the 20th Century <p class="Abstract" style="text-align: justify; text-indent: 1.0cm; line-height: normal; margin: 6.0pt 0cm 6.0pt 0cm;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 12.0pt;">The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether an experimental programme, based on interdisciplinary interactions between music education and history and the implementation of arts and cultural education objectives, could influence pupils’ interest in Western classical music of the 20<sup>th</sup> century. The programme was designed on the basis of collaborating with music education and history teachers at two Slovenian primary schools and a Slovenian composer. Classes of pupils, aged fourteen and fifteen, were divided into an experimental and a control group. According to the outcome, the pupils in the experimental group showed a higher level of interest in contemporary classical music after the experiment than their peers in the control group. Furthermore, the pupils in the experimental group reported having listened on their initiative, to more classical compositions after the experiment than the pupils in the control group had.</span></p> Jerneja Žnidaršič Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 12 2 197 216 10.26529/cepsj.976 Creating and Developing a Collaborative and Learning-Centred School Culture: Views of Estonian School Leaders <p>The present study aims to analyse how school leaders perceive their activities in creating and developing a collaborative school culture that promotes the school learning process. The data were collected in semi-structured interviews with nine school leaders and analysed using thematic content analysis. The results revealed that only three of the school leaders focused on the shared values and shared leadership necessary for creating a systematic and analytic approach to organisational and teacher development. The school leaders understood the importance of leading the development of the learning process, but this did not take place as expected in practice. Organisational and teacher development seemed to be unsystematic or not based on the continuous monitoring of processes. The findings of our study indicate that development programmes for school leaders should concentrate more on shaping the views, knowledge and skills needed to develop a collaborative and learning-centred school culture.</p> Katrin Poom-Valickis Eve Eisenschmidt Ann Leppiman Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 12 2 217 237 10.26529/cepsj.1029 Integrating Assessment for Learning into the Teaching and Learning of Secondary School Biology in Tanzania <p>The paper is about a study that investigated how the integration of assessment for learning enhances learning achievement among secondary school biology students in Tanzania. A quasi-experimental design involving pre-test and post-test of non-equivalent control and experimental groups was used to ascertain how the integration of assessment for learning into teaching and learning processes enhances students’ learning achievement. Two boarding secondary schools located in the suburbs of Dar Es Salaam were selected. Students in the two schools had maintained equivalent performances in national examinations in previous years. The results showed that the students taught using teaching and learning processes integrating assessment for learning outperformed those taught using conventional approaches. The integration of assessment for learning is likely to have contributed to the higher learning achievement in the experimental group. The study contributes to our understanding of how teachers in resource-constrained classrooms can integrate assessment for learning techniques into their day-to-day lessons, thereby harnessing the power of assessment to enhance learning and raise standards.</p> Albert Tarmo Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 12 2 239 265 10.26529/cepsj.958 Mind the Gap: Age-Related Differences in Students’ Perceptions of English Foreign Language Teacher and Motivation <p>The present paper addresses the age issue in the context of learning English as a foreign language in instructional settings. Our attention has been directed towards the examination of potential differences in students’ perceptions of their foreign language teacher and motivation in relation to age. A total of 592 participants attending higher grades of elementary school participated in the research. The results have shown that students’ perception of English language teacher characteristics and competences varies in relation to age. Although elementary school students perceive their language teacher to be the most competent in the area of instructional competences, younger students seem to put more emphasis on teacher’s personal characteristics over professional competences. The study also indicates differences in motivation, with an accentuated decline in relation to students’ age. The study offers a valuable information for teachers and policy makers and emphasizes the need for further adjustment of teaching methodology to various age groups.</p> Morana Drakulić Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 12 2 267 291 10.26529/cepsj.1025 Eckhardt Fuchs and Annekatrin Bock (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Textbook Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, New York: 2018; 432 pp.: ISBN: 978-1-137-53141-4 Mark Jupiter Užmah Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 12 2 293 297 10.26529/cepsj.1481 Saima Salehjee and Mike Watts, Becoming Scientific: Developing Science across the Life-Course, Cambridge Scholars Publishing: 2020; 257 pp.: ISBN: 1-5275-5498-8 Keith S. Taber Copyright (c) 2022 Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 2022-06-23 2022-06-23 12 2 299 306 10.26529/cepsj.1480